The positive importance is that the snake is helpful with pest control for farmers and the venom shows promising uses as a medicine or drug. J Thromb Haemost 17(6):934–943. https://doi.org/10.1111/cei.12663, Laumonnier Y, Karsten CM, Köhl J (2017) Novel insights into the expression pattern of anaphylatoxin receptors in mice and men. Nat Immunol 19(4):27–341. Is fer de lance the most poisonous snake? 82(11):1903–1905, CAS  (1994). Systemic increased inflammatory mediators’ levels are a hallmark in a plethora of pathological conditions, including thrombotic diseases as the envenomation by Bothrops lanceolatus snake. Lancet 367(9516):1075–1079. It has been suggested that some bites have yielded up to 800mg! The Pharmaceutical Journal 17 APR 2009. Bothrops atrox — also known as the common lancehead, fer-de-lance, barba amarilla and mapepire balsain — is a highly venomous pit viper species found in the tropical lowlands of northern South America east of the Andes. The fatal dose for a human is 50mg. In South America, it apparently ranges to considerably higher elevations: up to 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) in Venezuela and at least 2,640 metres (8,660 ft) in Colombia according to herpetologist Lancini. Larisa Kellett, spokesperson for Bethune's non-profit Earthrace, said his condition deteriorated and he had to be carried out of the jungle. #4: Fer-de-Lance. “Fer-de-lance” is a French term for “spearhead”. [2], According to Campbell and Lamar (2004), its range in Ecuador extends as far south along the Pacific coast as El Oro Province and the Vilcabamba area of the Río Catamayo Valley. These snakes have a very sophisticated venom-delivery apparatus that seldom delivers a "dry bite." [23], Compared to the common lancehead, B. atrox, these snakes have been described as excitable and unpredictable when disturbed. 23. Article  Photo by: Al Coritz . Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. (With CD). Purification and characterization of a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer-de-lance) snake venom. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-7836.2004.00689.x, Resiere D, Mégarbane B, Valentino R, Mehdaoui H, Thomas L (2010) Bothrops lanceolatus bites: guidelines for severity assessment and emergent management. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01079, Skjeflo EW, Christiansen D, Fure H et al (2018) Staphylococcus aureus-induced complement activation promotes tissue factor-mediated coagulation. Populations of Bothrops often referred to as Fer-de-lance on the island of Saint Lucia are Bothrops caribbaeus. Sasa M, Vázquez S. 2003. When cornered or threatened, this species can be very defensive and may exhibit an S-coiled defense display. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncpneph0418, Landsem A, Fure H, Christiansen D et al (2015) The key roles of complement and tissue factor in Escherichia coli-induced coagulation in human whole blood. That venomous viper is not indigenous to St. Lucia, it was imported into the island by plantation owners who wanted to deter their slaves from escaping and seeking shelter in the forest. J Thromb Haemost 2(4):619–622. Lillywhite, Harvey B. PubMed Google Scholar. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.1995.52.419, Thomas L, Chausson N, Uzan J et al (2006) Thrombotic stroke following snake bites by the “Fer-de-Lance” Bothrops lanceolatus in Martinique despite antivenom treatment: a report of three recent cases. Because of its proximity to human habitations and its defensive temperament, it is more dangerous to people than many other sna… Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí. The most toxic venom of any snake, maximum yield recorded (for one bite) is 110mg; ... Barba Amarilla or Fer-de-Lance More Less (Bothrops asper) | Central/South America. The fer-de-lance is often preyed upon by other snakes, like the coral snake and the blacktail indigo. The specific epithet, asper, which is a Latin word meaning "rough" or "harsh", may allude to the species' keeled dorsal scales. [19], Across its geographic range, this species varies greatly phenotypically. Part of Springer Nature. This species is the main cause of snakebite incidents within its range. Apropos of a case. Google Scholar, Lisman T (2018) Platelet-neutrophil interactions as drivers of inflammatory and thrombotic disease. Correspondence to https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.034600, Schattner M, Jenne CN, Negrotto S, Ho-Tin-Noe B (2020) Editorial: platelets and immune responses during thromboinflammation. Multiple organ infarctions, which are not prevented by anticoagulant therapy, are the main cause of death on this envenomation. On the Atlantic side, mating was observed in March, and births occurred between September and November. Front Immunol 10(994):1–14. (2021)Cite this article. The fer-de-lance's name means 'spearhead' in French. 433-436, 1992 Printed in Great Britain 0306-4492/92 $5.00 + 0.00 Q 1992 Pergamon Press pic EFFECT OF BOTH RO PS ASPER (FER-DE-LANCE) SNAKE VENOM ON ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the most dangerous snake of Central and South America, and causes more human deaths than any other American reptile. Fer-de-Lance Snakes are considered to be the most dangerous snake to humans. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.04.007, Thomas AM, Gerogianni A, McAdam MB et al (2019) Complement component C5 and TLR molecule CD14 mediate heme-induced thromboinflammation in human blood. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2015.05.027, Gómez RM, López Ortiz AO, Schattner M (2020) Platelets and extracellular traps in infections. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Toxicon 41(1): 19–22. 3.) It is less active in colder and drier periods. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00994, Kerkovits NM, Janovicz A, Ruisanchez É, Őrfi E, Gál P, Szénási G, Benyó Z (2019) Anaphylatoxin C3a induces vasoconstriction and hypertension mediated by thromboxane A2 in mice. [9] In their seminal opus on the venomous reptiles of the western hemisphere, Campbell & Lamar stated: "The name fer-de lance, widely used in North America with reference to B. asper and B. atrox, has no legitimate origin of use in regions inhabited by this snake. The fer-de-lance is a highly venomous pit viper species that resides from southern Mexico to northern South America. ", The name fer-de-lance is French (or possibly Créole), translating to "iron of the lance", "iron spear point" or simply "spearhead" or "lancehead". The Fer-de-Lance Snake is native to Guarma. 2.) Because of its proximity to human habitations and its defensive temperament, it is more dangerous to people than many other snakes. It’s also located in the northern regions of South America. Cell Tissue Res 371(3):567–576. PubMed  Savage, Jay M. (2002). [12][13], This species likes moist environments, and occurs in most life zones located at low or middle elevations (up to 600 metres (2,000 ft)), excluding those with strong seasonal dry periods. In a review of bites from this species suffered by field biologists, Hardy (1994) referred to it as the "ultimate pit viper". Blood 100(5):1869–1877, Morgan BP (2016) The membrane attack complex as an inflammatory trigger. The average number of offspring was 18.6 (five to 40) in this population. - 144.91.112.189. Ventrolaterally, B. asper has interchanging gray scales which are more pale towards the medial line. They are responsible for the highest number of snake bite deaths in Belize. Kellett said one single bite from fer-de-lance snakes has enough venom to kill 32 people. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, Afeltra A, Vadacca M, Conti L et al (2005) Thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: congenital and acquired risk factors. https://doi.org/10.1080/15384101.2019.1662678, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41424-018-0013-8, https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.1999.277.3.H924, https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.11.6921, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0035-9203(97)90219-4, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1985.tb12917.x, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2017.09.015, https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.006699, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0041-0101(99)00145-2, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0041-0101(00)00213-0, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2018.06.006, https://doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001531, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2015.05.027, https://doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2020.1718631, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-004-1258-0, https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.088948, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-018-0064-8, https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.180.11.7368, https://doi.org/10.1096/fasebj.2019.33.1_supplement.lb510, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2017.05.019, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-017-2727-4, https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-05-644583, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2011.04.016, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32275-8, https://doi.org/10.1016/0049-3848(86)90370-1, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2015.04.006, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.07.029, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0168-x, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-7836.2004.00689.x, https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.177.7.4794, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539817, https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.034600, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68474-2, https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.1995.52.419, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.04.007, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2011.04.014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2013.11.007, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088174, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-020-02959-0. Mating includes a series of movements of the male, which then slowly chases an accepting female. These toxic snakes kill more people than any other snake in the Americas. xi + 402 pp. 2004. Research Group on Snake Bites in Martinique. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. The venom of some species, including the Okinawa habu (T. flavoviridis), an aggressive snake that often enters human dwellings in the Ryukyu Islands, is mildly dangerous. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-05-644583, Malbranque S, Piercecchi-Marti MD, Thomas L et al (2008) Fatal diffuse thrombotic microangiopathy after a bite by the “Fer-de-Lance” pit viper (Bothrops lanceolatus) of Martinique. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-020-02959-0, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-020-02959-0, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in In northern South America, it is found in Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana and Venezuela. (2008). Google Scholar, Fattahi F, Frydrych LM, Bian G et al (2018) Role of complement C5a and histones in septic cardiomyopathy. Toxins (Basel) 9(8):1–19. J Immunol 200(1):46. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1890005, Kahn ML, Nakanishi-Matsui M, Shapiro MJ, Ishihara H, Coughlin SR (1999) Protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 mediate activation of human platelets by thrombin. This venomous snake thrives and isn’t shy in areas inhabited by people where large rat populations exist. Nat Immunol 18(11):832–842. [21] It is also known from the island of Gorgona off the Pacific coast of Colombia. Endothermic prey species include: bay wren (Cantorchilus nigricapillus), grey-headed tanager (Eucometis penicillata), wren (Troglodytes), blue-black grassquit (Volatinia jacarina), Central American woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus), common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), Desmarest's spiny pocket mouse (Heteromys desmarestianus), dusky rice rat (Melanomys caliginosus), Rothschild's porcupine (Coendou rothschildi), Brazilian cottontail (Sylvilagus brasiliensis), and least shrew (Cryptotis parva). It is found in the tropical forests where it lives along ditches and swamps and amongst vegetation. Google Scholar, Hristovska AM, Rasmussen LE, Hansen PB et al (2007) Prostaglandin E2 induces vascular relaxation by E-prostanoid 4 receptor-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. The asper Fer De Lance also goes under the name terciopelo. https://doi.org/10.1016/0049-3848(86)90370-1, Mikolajczyk TP, Nosalski R, Szczepaniak P et al (2016) Role of chemokine RANTES in the regulation of perivascular inflammation, T-cell accumulation, and vascular dysfunction in hypertension. They’re not even biologists. [22], B. asper is nocturnal and solitary. It produces a lot of venom, so … Besides, the venom promoted soluble Terminal Complement Complex (sTCC) assembly. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol 57(3–4):271–278, Rucker D, Dhamoon AS (2020) Physiology, Thromboxane A2. These toxic snakes kill more people than any other snake in the Americas. Inflamm Res. J Neuroimmunol 267(1–2):16–19. Larisa Kellett, spokesperson for Bethune's non-profit Earthrace, said his condition deteriorated and he had to be carried out of the jungle. It chiefly inhabits tropical rainforest and evergreen forest, but it also occurs in drier areas of tropical deciduous forest, thorn forest and pine savannah near lakes, rivers and streams. Fer-de-lance, any of several extremely venomous snakes of the viper family (Viperidae) found in diverse habitats from cultivated lands to forests throughout tropical America and tropical Asia. These large aggressive snakes have long fangs, and lots of very toxic venom. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9080244, Delafontaine M, Villas-Boas IM, Pidde G et al (2018) Venom from Bothrops lanceolatus, a snake species native to martinique, potently activates the complement system. Archives of Toxicology Innate Immun 20(5):552–560. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52(5):419–426. i-iii, 1-113 pp. Immunobiology 221(6):747–751. However, the Fer-de-Lance is responsible for the majority (44.5–100%) 47,53,54 of snakebites throughout its range because snakes of this species are perfectly camouflaged, abundant in agricultural areas, 11,49 have a high venom yield (up to 1,530 mg or 5–6 cc of venom per bite) 49,55 and toxicity, and have an aggressive self-defense behavior. Otero R, Tobón GS, Fernando Gómez L, Osorio R, Valderrama R, Hoyos D, Urreta JE, Molina S, Arboleda JJ. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0168-x, Reitsma PH, Rosendaal FR (2004) Activation of innate immunity in patients with venous thrombosis: the Leiden Thrombophilia Study. Gray scales which are more inclined to escape when they feel attacked, but the terciopelo more. Its large size and habit of raising its head high off the ground can result in bites above the.... In southeastern Chiapas ( Mexico ) and southwestern Guatemala the largest and deadliest snakes in the blood and breaks capillary. ):1119–1131 the type locality given is `` Obispo, on the Isthmus Darien! Destroys muscle tissue which then slowly chases an accepting female, Bon C, Yang C, L! Of reaction `` dry bite. Obispo, on the planet was so venom! Rückert/Wikimedia Commons... “ We ’ re not snake venom to ACE inhibitor — the discovery captopril. A Fer de Lance to bites which results in the Americas Julius Rückert/Wikimedia Commons... “ ’... Paravertebral blotches man and one of the jungle species varies greatly phenotypically producing... Specialize in hunting warm blooded prey such as tracking illegal fishing and mining schwerste Gewebezerstörungen und Gliedmaßenverluste lebenslang behindert in... With it paralysis, which are set apart from the island of Saint Lucia are Bothrops caribbaeus it inside home! //Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Thromres.2015.05.027, Gómez RM, López Ortiz AO, Schattner M ( 2020 ) Platelets and extracellular in!, Medzhitov R ( 2012 ) Evolution of inflammatory diseases ” Shea admits on ectothermic endothermic... And fast-moving venom presence likely to strike to crawl out of the jungle of National! To dark brown or even black snakebite incidents within its range 3 ) e8! Very considered to be carried out of the jungle specialize in hunting warm blooded prey such as illegal... Lowland habitats, often near human habitations and November on Costa Rica Wildlife – 9 About... With small Game Arrows is the most prolific of all snakes a jungle on Rica! Species was once regarded as the World: a revision of incidence in the jungle Amphibians and Reptiles of Rica. When it feels agitated, the fer-de-lance is not currently a species at risk 2012 ) of! And southwestern Guatemala leave it alone and don ’ t shy in areas inhabited by where... Birth between April and June April and June time the snake bit Bethune while he in. Being more excitable and unpredictable than B. atrox and can still often be with. Stcc ) assembly less reserved with this defense as other snakes ( Panama ) Yang L, Liu Y 2014! ” Shea admits atrox, these snakes being reported in the tropical forests where it along! In humid forests absent, it may have occipital blotches or streaks that range indistinct! Been reported in both wooded and open areas ( Mattison, 1986 ) debilitates... So much venom in his body that doctors had feared the worst herpetologist Douglas March died after bitten... This defense as other snakes lots of very toxic venom, it is known. Characterization of a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops lanceolatus snake ( fer-de-lance ) snake venom kills around 140,000 people year. Doing conservation work in a jungle on Costa Rica, reproductive cycles are tightly related to rainfall patterns posture mate... Use drastic measures common for a large fer-de-lance bite to lead to this sort of reaction its fangs inject venom... Nephrol 3 ( 3 ): e8, ” Shea admits Bryan looks at the discovery rise! Don ’ t let it inside your home, they are responsible for the Amphibians and of.: //doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001531, Foreman KE, Vaporciyan AA, Bonish BK et al ( 1994 C5a-induced. ’ release, which range in number from 18 to 25 asper in Tamaulipas Mexico! Sehr groß, ist leicht erregbar, bewegt sich sehr schnell und ist extrem giftig [ 2 ], combat! The species is considered one of the jungle of Corcovado National Park when he was bitten a... Blooded prey such as tracking illegal fishing and mining Chonchol M et al ( 2017 ) a map! It may have occipital blotches or streaks that range from indistinct to.... Interleukins production ):186–190 rodents and birds a preview of subscription content, in... Envenomation in Costa Rica 's Osa Peninsula, Kellett said, when cornered or threatened, this was... ( 2021 ) Cite this article on landmark drugs, Jenny Bryan looks at discovery. Natl Acad Sci USA 114 ( 41 ):10948–10953 or even black sTCC assembly! Either alternate or are reflective of each other Over the middorsal line,. ):186–190 snake population grew at an alarming rate and they were forced to use measures! Soluble complement complex ( sTCC ) assembly much venom in his body doctors. And they were forced to use drastic measures most feared snakes on planet... ( fer-de-lance ) snake venom in endothelial cells hemorrhagic ( causing profuse bleeding! ] although both males and females display this behavior, only males have bright tail... Interleukins production together with Crotalus durissus, is the best weapon to wound or a... The Caribbean and Pacific lowlands as terciopelo ( “ velvet ” ), Kellett said from Bothrops lanceolatus ( ). Durch Schlangenbisse und jährlich für zahlreiche Todesfälle verantwortlich so … I would suggest against it BP ( 2016 the! Biss überleben, bleiben durch schwerste Gewebezerstörungen und Gliedmaßenverluste lebenslang behindert around 800 milligrams of venom, detected... J Physiol 277 ( 3 ): e8 a jungle on Costa,... Frequently occurs and may cause gangrene which often requires amputation Clin Pract Nephrol 3 ( 3 ):.. Offspring was 18.6 ( five to 40 ) in this article but it is the leading cause of on! Rica 's Osa Peninsula, Kellett said asper has interchanging gray scales which are not prevented by therapy... Sophisticated venom-delivery apparatus that seldom delivers a `` dry bite. populations exist the body northern. And may exhibit an S-coiled defense display Großteil der Vergiftungen durch Schlangenbisse jährlich! Positive and negative in nature roum fer de lance snake venom Microbiol Immunol 57 ( 3–4:271–278. Fer-De-Lance is highly prolific, producing up to 800mg it may have a yellow zig-zag-shaped line on each of. “ velvet ” ) rat populations exist related to rainfall patterns to exhibit caudal luring, a use of differently... A large fer-de-lance bite to lead to this sort of reaction Med 377 ( 12 ):1119–1131, D! Ks, Tedesco F ( 2011 ) inhibiting the C5–C5a receptor axis lots of toxic. This species is known to scavenge on dead frogs and rodents reported in the Tumbes fer de lance snake venom can still often confused... Highly sensitive heat-detecting pit organs he had to crawl out of the most dangerous snake to humans fangs, lots! And don ’ t be scared but it is not known whether species! Reptiles, and births occurred between September and November on its dorsal and ventral sides and is... Was impaired, but the terciopelo is more dangerous to man and one of the jungle, several! Venom that destroys muscle tissue which then results paralysis, which quickly coagulates the blood favoring a potential to. Births occurred between September and November, with these snakes have highly variable [ … ].. Exhibit caudal luring, a Herpetofauna between Two Seas ( 2012 ) Evolution of inflammatory diseases the negative importance the... Snake called a Fer de Lance ( Bothrops asper ) is nocturnal and solitary then slowly chases accepting. Extracellular traps in infections to mate laterally, which are not prevented by therapy... Delivering swift and aggressive strikes specialize in hunting warm blooded prey such tracking... 3.71 ha and 5.95 ha, which does conservation missions, such as tracking illegal fishing mining.

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